The Dollar Bill

The dollar bill in use today was designed in 1957. This “paper money” is made from a blend of cotton and linen. Look closely and you’ll see that it also contains red and blue fibers made of silk as an anti-counterfeit measure.

The Seal of the United States Treasury is on the front. The top features scales representing justice and the center shows a chevron with 13 stars representing the 13 colonies. The key acts as a symbol of authority.

The Great Seal of the United States is shown with both the obverse and the reverse on the back of the dollar bill. The back of the seal sits on the left side and contains a Pyramid. The front of the pyramid is lit but the western side is dark, which some have suggested demonstrates that we had not yet begun to explore the West.

The Pyramid is uncapped, again possibly signifying that we were not yet finished with our task of exploring the continenant. Charles Thompson, Secretary of Congress in 1782, told Congress that the pyramid represented “Strength and Duration.”

An eye sits inside the capstone, as an ancient symbol for divinity and long used by Masons. Franklin was a Mason, but Adams and Jefferson weren’t. Above that is the Latin phrase ANNUIT COEPTIS, which means, “God has favored our undertaking.” Below is the phrase NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM, which means “a new order for the ages.” At the base of the pyramid is the year 1776 in Roman numerals.

The obverse (front) of the Seal can be found at national cemeteries. It also serves as the basis for Seal of the President of the United States. Over Franklin’s objections (he wanted the turkey), the Bald Eagle was chosen as our nation’s symbol for victory. The eagle fears no storm, being strong and smart enough to soar above it, and he has no crown – important symbolism considering we had just won our war against King George.

The shield on the eagle’s chest represents Congress consisting of red and white stripes with a blue bar above. The colors are from the American flag; the red represents hardiness and valor, the white represents purity and innocence, and the blue, vigilance, perseverance, and justice. The eagle’s beak holds a ribbon proclaiming E PLURIBUS UNUM, meaning “one nation from many people.”

The Eagle’s talons holds an olive branch, long considered a peace offering, and arrows, an instrument of war. This illustrates our sentiment: we want peace but we are prepared to fight for it. Originally, the Eagle’s beak was turned towards the arrows, but President Truman ordered it turned toward the olive branch.

There were 13 original colonies in America. Thus thirteen stripes on our flag – and also 13 steps on the Pyramid, 13 letters in the Latin above it, 13 letters in “E Pluribus Unum,” 13 stars above the Eagle, 13 plumes of feathers on each span of the Eagle’s wing, 13 bars on its shield, 13 leaves on the olive branch, 13 fruits, and 13 arrows.

Commercial Financing Super Regional Malls – Description and Design

Super-regional shopping malls represent the largest single concentration of retail shops in the shopping center format. Super-regional malls, often more than one story in height, may exceed 1 million square feet in leasable area. A few “super-regional” malls are in excess of 2.1 million square feet; however, most are between 1.1 and 1.5 million square feet of gross leasable area. The term super- regional indicates that the market area the center serves has a population of 300,000 or more. The term mall indicates that the shops are to be clustered around a core area usually restricted to pedestrian traffic. Most of the recent successful super-regional malls have been totally enclosed, roofed, and air-conditioned. The tenants lease space for their merchandising area, plus basements and other storage space, employee rest areas, and offices. Tenants also pay a pro rata share of the expenses of operating the enclosed, purely public spaces in the mall; each share is based on a formula of the tenant’s percentage of gross leasable area to the total leasable area.

Super-regional malls are generally “anchored” by at least four major retail departments stores. These huge retailers have advertising budgets, reputations, and size that generate considerable shopping traffic. Anchor tenants often demand and receive rent concessions; they may even build and own their own buildings on space donated by the developer to attract them to the mall. In terms of rent paid, the anchors usually offer only break-even benefit to the developer; however, they are often key to the success of the other retailers, who pay higher rents to make up for the anchors’ concessions.

Besides the anchor department stores, a variety of other tenants are attracted to super-regional malls. The 10 most prevalent mall tenants (after department stores), listed in order of their occurrence, are
women’s ready-to-wear shops
jewelry shops
fast food carryout restaurants
menswear shops
women’s shoe stores
women’s specialty clothing shops
family shoe shops
card and gift shops
department stores
special apparel–unisex clothing shops

The design of the super-regional mall is often critical to the success of the non-anchor chain stores and local tenants. Such tenants get the exposure they need from the pedestrian traffic between the anchors. A four-cornered pattern creates the maximum amount of traffic for local shops. If a mall includes tenants such as restaurants or movie theaters, which create their own traffic, a central location on the pedestrian path is less critical. (Often, restaurants and movie houses will be segregated, if possible, as they often cause congestion and litter that are inconvenient to other tenants.)

In addition to higher rents per square foot of leased space, retailers pay more to operate in a super-regional mall than to operate in an open-air or “strip” shopping center. This is primarily because mall tenants must pay a pro rata share of the cost of heating, cooling, and cleaning an enclosed pedestrian space.

Neighborhood & Specialty Shopping Centers – Descriptions and Financing

Neighborhood shopping centers are usually strip centers of 100,000 square feet or less with traffic generated most often by a food store and a drug store. The food store and, to a lesser extent, the pharmacy generally are destination shopping stores that pay lower rent but generate high traffic. Local tenants pay higher rents, have a higher profit margin but lower sales per square foot, and rely somewhat on impulse buying. It is interesting to note that in the 2001 edition of the study to define the 10 types of retailers most often located in neighborhood centers, the second most noted retailer was the supermarket (food) store. This retailer had fallen to tenth position by 2004. Restaurants with and without liquor service as well as fast food carryout restaurants moved significantly up the list by 2004, reflecting the trend toward increased utilization of out of the home eating. In addition, more and more food retailers gravitated in the late 1990s toward fewer but larger stores often located in regional and super-regional centers.
The mix is similar, but not identical, to that of the community shopping center.

Specialty shopping centers generally occupy less than 50,000 square feet and are dominated by local retailers. Many are located in business areas such as office complexes and hotel or convention areas. Most feature restaurants and retailers with high profit margins that sell high-fashion clothing, costly gifts, or books. The shops generally are small and have limited hours of operation. Most of their sales are made during lunch hours, the period immediately after work, and–if the shops are open before normal office hours–in the morning. The newest popular specialty shopping areas are located at the destination points of rapid transit systems in cities like Washington, D.C., Atlanta, and San Francisco. The high-traffic hours before and after work generate the bulk of the sales.

Specialty centers do not rely on individual retailers to generate traffic. Instead, they rely on the location or surrounding area to generate pedestrian shopping. Tenant turnover tends to be high because of the extremely high rents and, consequently, the high profit margins the tenants must build into their operation. Most specialty centers are tailored to convenience and impulse shopping, which is likely to be curtailed in times of economic distress.